An important aspect of a child’s cognitive development is the emergence of a representational theory of mind. Having a theory of mind means that one is able to impute mental states – such as beliefs, intentions, knowledge and desires – to oneself and others. In simple terms, it involves knowing that other people have minds of their own and that their thoughts and knowledge can differ from one’s own. Continue reading
Chewing Gum May Reduce Stress
At least, that’s what the results of a recent UK study suggest. In a controlled lab experiment with 40 persons, Scholey and his colleagues examined whether chewing gum is capable of reducing induced anxiety and stress while participants performed various multitasking activities (Scholey, Robertson, Haskell, Milne & Kennedy, 2007). Results revealed that gum chewers experienced significantly higher levels of alertness and lower levels of state anxiety, stress, and salivary cortisol. The chewing gum condition was also associated with better performance on the multitasking activities. Improved cerebral blood flow during gum chewing was cited as a possible explanation for these findings.