While depression and aggression affect both males and females, gender differences in each of these conditions have frequently been noted in the literature. As it relates to depression in particular, Piccinelli & Wilkinson (2000) mentioned that there is a female preponderance in the prevalence, incidence and morbidity risk of this disorder. Continue reading
Oh what changes the seasons bring!
From falling leaves to an icy sting
To a sudden shift in the songs we sing
We all know the common saying: “For everything there is a season.” A season to laugh, a season to cry… and apparently a season to listen to certain types of music. At least that’s what the findings of two studies conducted by Pettijohn, Williams and Carter (2010) seem to suggest. Both studies, conducted in the United States, were designed to examine how seasonal conditions influence music preferences in a sample of male and female college students. Continue reading
Educational psychology is the scientific field concerned with applying psychological theories and concepts to the understanding and improvement of teaching and learning in formal educational settings. In simpler terms, it is concerned with the study of how students learn and how teachers can help them to learn effectively. Educational psychology draws on and combines various psychological theories and principles – such as those related to human development, motivation, learning, behavior management and assessment, among others – in order to improve the conditions of teaching and learning. Educational psychologists study the process of learning not only among the general population but also among sub-groups such as gifted children and those with various learning disabilities. Continue reading
All of us, at one time or another, have experienced what it means to be afraid. Fear is a normal feature of human existence and serves an adaptive function in that it triggers reactions which allow us to respond to danger or threat. At times, however, fear can become excessive, disturbing and out of proportion with reality. Persons who experience such abnormal fear are described as having a form of anxiety disorder known as a phobia.
The term phobia refers to an intense, irrational fear of a particular object or situation, whether real or imagined. The fear is so severe that it interferes with the individual’s daily functioning, restricting their activities and causing much distress. In many cases, individuals experiencing phobias recognize that their fears are irrational but feel helpless to control them. Continue reading