Educational psychology is the scientific field concerned with applying psychological theories and concepts to the understanding and improvement of teaching and learning in formal educational settings. In simpler terms, it is concerned with the study of how students learn and how teachers can help them to learn effectively. Educational psychology draws on and combines various psychological theories and principles – such as those related to human development, motivation, learning, behavior management and assessment, among others – in order to improve the conditions of teaching and learning. Educational psychologists study the process of learning not only among the general population but also among sub-groups such as gifted children and those with various learning disabilities. Continue reading
All of us, at one time or another, have experienced what it means to be afraid. Fear is a normal feature of human existence and serves an adaptive function in that it triggers reactions which allow us to respond to danger or threat. At times, however, fear can become excessive, disturbing and out of proportion with reality. Persons who experience such abnormal fear are described as having a form of anxiety disorder known as a phobia.
The term phobia refers to an intense, irrational fear of a particular object or situation, whether real or imagined. The fear is so severe that it interferes with the individual’s daily functioning, restricting their activities and causing much distress. In many cases, individuals experiencing phobias recognize that their fears are irrational but feel helpless to control them. Continue reading
Health psychology can be defined as the study of how biological, environmental, psychological and sociocultural factors influence health, healthcare and illness. Continue reading
Clinical psychology is one of the most popular subfields within the discipline of psychology. It involves the application of psychological theories, principles and methods to the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders and other forms of abnormal behaviour. These include a wide range of conditions such as depression, anxiety, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction, addictions, eating disorders, and aggressive behavior. Clinical psychologists also examine the causes of abnormal behavior in order to predict and prevent maladjustment.
Most clinical psychologists have a doctoral level degree – Ph.D or Psy.D – and have undergone intensive practical training in clinical settings. Continue reading